header2

Amino Acids in Hist­amine Into­le­rance and Mast Cell Disease (MCAS)

Amino acids are buil­ding blocks of body proteins and there­fore essen­tial for life. Certain amino acids cannot be produced by the body itself; conse­quently, they must be inge­sted through food. It is there­fore important to have a balanced supply of protein in the diet, which is some­times more chal­len­ging in cases of hist­amine into­le­rance and/or food aller­gies and mast cell diseases.

Amino acids that may be useful in hist­amine into­le­rance syndrome (HIS) and mast cell acti­va­tion syndrome (MCAS) include:

  • Crea­tine
  • Glycine
  • Methio­nine (e.g., when abstai­ning from all animal and certain vegan protein sources.)

Histidine should be avoided in cases of hist­amine into­le­rance, as hist­amine is formed from it in the body by means of histidine decarboxylase.

This article is about a health issue. It is important that you have your symptoms examined and treated by medical profes­sio­nals. This article is not intended to be, and cannot be, a substi­tute for the care and advice of medical profes­sio­nals that may be avail­able to you.

Crea­tine in Hist­amine Into­le­rance and Mast Cell Acti­va­tion Syndrome (MCAS)

Crea­tine is one of the most rese­ar­ched dietary supple­ments. Studies exist on its use from osteo­po­rosis to neuro­de­ge­ne­ra­tive diseases.

These show that crea­tine may be helpful in a variety of meta­bolic processes. The following effects of crea­tine have already been demons­trated in scien­tific studies1–4:

  • Reduc­tion of chole­sterol and triglycerides
  • Reduced fat accu­mu­la­tion in the liver
  • Reduc­tion of homo­cys­teine levels
  • Improved blood sugar control
  • Increase in strength and/or muscle mass
  • Better cogni­tive function
  • Improved bone density (when accom­pa­nied by exercise)
  • Parti­ally forma­tion of an anti­de­pres­sant effect as well as reduc­tion of fatigue

In addi­tion to the “typical” areas of appli­ca­tion in sports, injury manage­ment, and reha­bi­li­ta­tion after trai­ning, crea­tine has posi­tive effects that can benefit people with hist­amine into­le­rance and mast cell dise­ases. Espe­cially since crea­tine-rich foods such as salmon, beef, etc. are often only poorly tole­rated in these conditions.

Crea­tine could possibly help suffe­rers who comp­lain of poor perfor­mance due to “brain fog”. In addi­tion, suffe­rers often have problems main­tai­ning their weight or buil­ding up muscles. Both aspects are crucial to coun­teract subse­quent problems ranging from under­weight to osteoporosis.

Histamine mediated symptoms in mast cell diseases like rashes, nausea, runny nose, sneezing, diarrhea
Hist­amine mediated symptoms in mast cell diseases

Crea­tine Side Effects

It all sounds almost a little too good to be true — doesn’t it? The effects in the studies are not necessa­rily all that great and often more subtle.

Nevertheless, crea­tine is one of the safest supple­ments avail­able. It has been used in doses ranging from 0.3 to 0.8 g/kg of body weight per day in a wide variety of subject groups (elderly, children, and even pregnant women) with no harmful side effects.1

One side effect described is weight gain. On the posi­tive side, crea­tine ingestion does not appear to suppress the body’s amino acid produc­tion. Even high doses up to 30 grams per day were not asso­ciated with an accu­mu­la­tion of kidney disease..1

Crea­tine in the Diet and Dose Recommendations?

Prof. Dr. Theo Walli­mann5 recom­mended as early as 1984 to aim for 3 grams of crea­tine per day for general health. Now the ques­tion arises: Can’t I reach this amount with my diet?

The answer is: probably not — one to two grams of crea­tine are contained in one pound (!) of raw beef. Vege­ta­rians gene­rally tend to have lower levels.

Supple­men­ta­tion: An Easy Way to Increase Crea­tine Levels?

There are diffe­rent approa­ches to taking crea­tine: for example, the so-called “loading phase”, in which a higher amount of crea­tine is taken over five to seven days to reple­nish the stores. After that, the dose is reduced to a main­ten­ance dose.

Another option is a constant supple­men­ta­tion of, for example, 3 grams a day. In addi­tion, care should be taken to ensure that the crea­tine is taken with carbo­hy­drates because it is better absorbed that way.1

Sleepless, woman suffering from insomnia, sleep apnea or stress, headache or migraine

Glycine: Remedy for Insomnia Caused by Histamine?

Glycine is a non-essen­tial amino acid, which means that humans can produce it. It is synthe­sized from choline, threo­nine, and serine. In the produc­tion of glycine from choline, methyl groups are gene­rated. It is also a precursor of creatine.

Glycine protects gastro­in­tes­tinal cells in various cell and animal models and has an anti-inflamma­tory acti­vity, so it would be of great inte­rest to study this in humans. Like­wise, the amino acid hindered the deve­lo­p­ment of gastric ulcers in animal models.6

It also has a hepa­to­pro­tec­tive effect, meaning that it appears to have a posi­tive impact on liver health.6

Another benefit of glycine is that this amino acid improves subjec­tive sleep quality and may help with sleep disor­ders.7 Hist­amine is an exci­ta­tory neuro­trans­mitter that has a stimu­la­ting effect on the central nervous system. Pati­ents with hist­amine into­le­rance syndrome (HIS) or mast cell acti­va­tion syndrome (MCAS) often describe sleep and wake rhythms disturbances.

Further­more, glycine causes body tempe­ra­ture to drop at night. Rese­ar­chers believe this drop may also improve sleep.8 In addi­tion, REM sleep was prolonged in one study.9

Side Effects. Glycine is Consi­dered Harm­less Even in High doses

Glycine is consi­dered very safe even in high doses, both in humans and animals. In rats, high doses over four weeks of 2g/kg were not toxic.10 In some cases, doses of up to 30 (!) grams per day were used in human studies. In one case, nausea with vomi­ting occurred, which caused the discon­ti­nua­tion of treat­ment in this indi­vi­dual..11℗

MAP Amino Acids for Hist­amine Intolerance

MAP stands for Master Amino Acid Pattern. According to Prof. Dr. Lucà-Moretti, it repres­ents the optimal ratio of the eight essen­tial amino acids for humans so that as little nitrogen waste and ammonia as possible is produced. MAP® supple­ments are used to correct protein defi­ci­en­cies. Supple­men­ta­tion with MAP® is compa­ra­tively expensive.

To ensure adequate protein intake in cases of hist­amine into­le­rance, one should watch their protein supply to provide a balanced amino acid profile, so no further supple­ments like MAP® are needed. For example, one can mix pea and rice protein in a 30% to 70% ratio for an opti­mized amino acid profile.

Rice protein does not contain enough lysine but more methio­nine. It, there­fore, makes sense to alter­nate and rotate protein sources to ensure optimal supply.

In the case of severe kidney or liver disease, it may be advi­s­able to reduce the nitrogen and ammonia drop through protein intake — but this must decide the atten­ding medical professional.

Methio­nine or S‑Ade­nosyl-Methio­nine in Hist­amine Into­le­rance, Aller­gies or MCAS

Methio­nine is a sulfur-contai­ning amino acid found prima­rily in animal protein sources such as salmon, chicken, and non-animal proteins like soybeans, chick­peas, and millet. As a rule, people consume enough of this amino acid in their diet.

S‑ade­nosyl-methio­nine, or S‑ade­nosyl-L-methio­nine (SAMe), is the active form of methio­nine, but it is rela­tively unstable in some supple­ment forms. SAMe is a methyl group donor in the body and plays an essen­tial role in methyla­tion processes in the human body.

One of the degra­dation pathways of hist­amine is via hist­amine methyl trans­ferase (HNMT for short) and is also based on a methyla­tion reac­tion, which is why there is repeated specu­la­tion as to whether taking methio­nine could help allergy suffe­rers.12 However, studies in humans are still lacking.

Histamine Metabolism & Degradation via DAO & HNMT
Hist­amine Meta­bo­lism & Degra­dation via DAO & HNMT

Since a suffi­cient amount of methio­nine, espe­cially S‑ade­nosyl-methio­nine, is asso­ciated with reduced oxida­tive stress in animal models of asthma, one should make sure to ingest enough methio­nine in the diet.13.13

In addi­tion, methio­nine is used in Germany to prevent recur­rent urinary tract infec­tions by provi­ding this amino acid to acidify the urine.

n a retro­spec­tive study with pati­ents after kidney trans­plan­ta­tion, methio­nine was able to provide an almost half reduc­tion in the occur­rence of urinary tract infec­tions, but the effect was some­what weaker compared to the intake of cran­berry juice.14

Side Effects: Increase Homo­cys­teine Levels and Gastro­in­tes­tinal Complaints

Exces­sive intake of methio­nine can increase homo­cys­teine levels, which is consi­dered a risk marker for athe­ros­cle­rosis, among other things.15 This is parti­cu­larly the case when there is no adequate intake of folic acid, vitamin B6, and B12.

Gastro­in­tes­tinal comp­laints may also occur.16 There­fore, it is best to see if one can meet one’s needs through diet or work speci­fi­cally with thera­pists to address this.

Excur­sion: Methyla­tion is not yet fully unders­tood: It influ­ences epige­netic processes to a high degree. Epige­ne­tics is respon­sible for control­ling whether specific genes are “swit­ched on or off”. There­fore, I would be very cautious about taking high doses of methio­nine or SAMe, for example, or like­wise methylated folic acid (methyl folate or 5‑MTHF) without proven defi­ci­en­cies or thera­peutic guidance.

For example, animal studies showed that very high doses of methyl folate were asso­ciated with more atopic disease in the offspring. In humans, these study results were incon­clu­sive — some showed this effect and others did not17

Refe­rences

1.         Kreider RB, Kalman DS, Antonio J, et al. Inter­na­tional Society of Sports Nutri­tion posi­tion stand: safety and effi­cacy of crea­tine supple­men­ta­tion in exer­cise, sport, and medi­cine. Journal of the Inter­na­tional Society of Sports Nutri­tion. 2017;14(1):18. doi:10.1186/s12970-017‑0173‑z

2.         Stead LM, Au KP, Jacobs RL, Brosnan ME, Brosnan JT. Methyla­tion demand and homo­cys­teine meta­bo­lism: effects of dietary provi­sion of crea­tine and guani­di­noace­tate. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001;281(5):E1095-1100. doi:10.1152/ajpendo.2001.281.5.E1095

3.         Santos RVT, Bassit RA, Cape­ruto EC, Costa Rosa LFBP. The effect of crea­tine supple­men­ta­tion upon inflamma­tory and muscle soreness markers after a 30km race. Life Sci. 2004;75(16):1917–1924. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2003.11.036

4.         Op ’t Eijnde B, Ursø B, Richter EA, Green­haff PL, Hespel P. Effect of oral crea­tine supple­men­ta­tion on human muscle GLUT4 protein content after immo­bi­liz­a­tion. Diabetes. 2001;50(1):18–23.

5.         ETH Zürich — Theo Walli­mann. Accessed July 29, 2021. https://www.bi.id.ethz.ch/personensuche/personenDetail.view?lang=de&pid=1312E

6.         Razak MA, Begum PS, Viswa­nath B, Raja­gopal S. Multi­fa­rious Bene­fi­cial Effect of Nones­sen­tial Amino Acid, Glycine: A Review. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017;2017:1716701. doi:10.1155/2017/1716701

7.         Yama­dera W, Inagawa K, Chiba S, Bannai M, Taka­hashi M, Naka­yama K. Glycine ingestion improves subjec­tive sleep quality in human volun­teers, corre­la­ting with poly­s­om­no­gra­phic changes. Sleep Biol Rhythms. 2007;5(2):126–131. doi:10.1111/j.1479–8425.2007.00262.x

8.         Bannai M, Kawai N. New thera­peutic stra­tegy for amino acid medi­cine: glycine improves the quality of sleep. J Phar­macol Sci. 2012;118(2):145–148. doi:10.1254/jphs.11r04fm

9.         Kawai N, Sakai N, Okuro M, et al. The sleep-promo­ting and hypo­thermic effects of glycine are mediated by NMDA recep­tors in the supra­chi­as­matic nucleus. Neuro­psy­cho­phar­ma­co­logy. 2015;40(6):1405–1416. doi:10.1038/npp.2014.326

10.       Shibui Y, Miwa T, Yama­shita M, Chin K, Kodama T. A 4‑week Repeated Dose Toxi­city Study of Glycine in Rats by Gavage Admi­nis­tra­tion. J Toxicol Pathol. 2013;26(4):405–412. doi:10.1293/tox.2013–0026

11.       Heresco-Levy U, Javitt DC, Ermilov M, Mordel C, Silipo G, Lich­ten­stein M. Effi­cacy of High-Dose Glycine in the Treat­ment of Endu­ring Nega­tive Symptoms of Schi­zo­phrenia. Arch Gen Psych­iatry. 1999;56(1):29. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.56.1.29

12.       Pacheco Y, Macov­schi O, Biot N, Fonlupt P, Perrin-Fayolle M, Pacheco H. Modu­la­tion by S‑ade­nosyl-methio­nine and S‑ade­nosyl-homo­cys­teine of the human leucocytes hist­amine release. Clin Allergy. 1984;14(1):37–43. doi:10.1111/j.1365–2222.1984.tb02187.x

13.       Yoon S‑Y, Hong GH, Kwon H‑S, et al. S‑adenosylmethionine reduces airway inflamma­tion and fibrosis in a murine model of chronic severe asthma via suppres­sion of oxida­tive stress. Exp Mol Med. 2016;48(6):e236. doi:10.1038/emm.2016.35

14.       Pagonas N, Hörs­trup J, Schmidt D, et al. Prophy­laxis of recur­rent urinary tract infec­tion after renal trans­plan­ta­tion by cran­berry juice and L‑methionine. Trans­plant Proc. 2012;44(10):3017–3021. doi:10.1016/j.transproceed.2012.06.071

15.       Ditscheid B, Fünf­stück R, Busch M, Schu­bert R, Gerth J, Jahreis G. Effect of L‑methionine supple­men­ta­tion on plasma homo­cys­teine and other free amino acids: a placebo-controlled double-blind cross-over study. Euro­pean Journal of Clinical Nutri­tion. 2005;59(6):768–775. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602138

16.       Phar­ma­Wiki — Methionin. Accessed July 29, 2021. https://www.pharmawiki.ch/wiki/index.php?wiki=Methionin

17.       Sharma S, Litonjua A. Asthma, Allergy, and Responses to Methyl Donor Supple­ments and Nutri­ents. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133(5):1246–1254. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2013.10.039

https://www.medica-kiel.de/gesundheitsbibliothek/index/l‑methionin/

https://www.medica.de/de/News/Archiv/Die_Entdeckung_des_Master_Amino_Acid_Pattern_(MAP)_–_spezifisches_Aminosäurenmuster_des_Menschen

www | + posts

Natur­o­path, hypno­the­ra­pist, owner of an immune system gone crazy with various auto­im­mune special effects. She likes reading through medical papers and is an avid learner of all things regar­ding the human immune system. When her joints and body allow it: enthu­si­astic do-it-your­selfer around the house.

Immunoloco unterstützen

immunoloco möchte Betroffenen kostenlos gute und hilfreiche Informationen rund um ein verrücktes Immunsystem bieten. Du findest das gut? Dann unterstütze immunoloco und meine Arbeit doch gerne durch eine kleine Spende. 

Leave a Reply